# Wordnet¶

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WordNet® is a large lexical database of English. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are grouped into sets of cognitive synonyms (synsets), each expressing a distinct concept. Synsets are interlinked by means of semantic relations. The resulting network of related words and concepts can be navigated with the browser. WordNet is also freely and publicly available for download, making it a useful tool for computational linguistics and natural language processing. Princeton University “About WordNet.” WordNet. Princeton University. 2010

In Python there are specialized libraries to read WordNet like NLTK, but for the sake of this worksheet, you will parse the noun database as a text file which can be read line by line.

We will focus on names and how they are linked by IS A relation, for example, a dalmatian IS A dog (IS A is also called hypernym relation)

REQUIREMENTS: Having read Relational data tutorial , which contains also instructions for installing required libraries.

## What to do¶

1. Unzip exercises zip in a folder, you should obtain something like this:

wordnet-prj
wordnet.ipynb
wordnet-sol.ipynb
data.noun
dogs.noun
jupman.py


WARNING: to correctly visualize the notebook, it MUST be in an unzipped folder !

1. open Jupyter Notebook from that folder. Two things should open, first a console and then a browser. The browser should show a file list: navigate the list and open the notebook wordnet.ipynb

2. Go on reading the notebook, and write in the appropriate cells when asked

Shortcut keys:

• to execute Python code inside a Jupyter cell, press Control + Enter

• to execute Python code inside a Jupyter cell AND select next cell, press Shift + Enter

• to execute Python code inside a Jupyter cell AND a create a new cell aftwerwards, press Alt + Enter

• If the notebooks look stuck, try to select Kernel -> Restart

## 1. parse_db¶

First, you will begin with parsing an excerpt of wordnet dogs.noun file, which is a noun database shown here in its entirety.

According to documentation, a noun database begins with several lines containing a copyright notice, version number, and license agreement: these lines all begin with two spaces and the line number like

1 This software and database is being provided to you, the LICENSEE, by
2 Princeton University under the following license.  By obtaining, using
3 and/or copying this software and database, you agree that you have


Afterwards, each of following lines describe a noun synset, that is, a unique concept identified by a number called synset_offset.

• each synset can have many words to represent it - for example, the noun synset 02112993 has 03 (w_cnt) words dalmatian coach_dog, carriage_dog.

• a synset can be linked to other ones by relations. The dalmatian synset is linked to 002 (p_cnt) other synsets: to synset 02086723 by the @ relation, and to synset 02113184 by the ~ relation. For our purposes, you can focus on the @ symbol which means IS A relation (also called hypernym). If you search for a line starting with 02086723, you will see it is the synset for dog, so Wordnet is telling us a dalmatian IS A dog.

WARNING 1: lines can be quite long so if they appear to span multiple lines don’t be fooled : remember each name definition only occupies one single line with no carriage returns!

WARNING 2: there are no empty lines between the synsets, here you see them just to visually separate the text blobs

1 This software and database is being provided to you, the LICENSEE, by
2 Princeton University under the following license.  By obtaining, using
3 and/or copying this software and database, you agree that you have
4 read, understood, and will comply with these terms and conditions.:
5
6 Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this software and
7 database and its documentation for any purpose and without fee or
8 royalty is hereby granted, provided that you agree to comply with
9 the following copyright notice and statements, including the disclaimer,
10 and that the same appear on ALL copies of the software, database and
11 documentation, including modifications that you make for internal
12 use or for distribution.
13
15
16 THIS SOFTWARE AND DATABASE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND PRINCETON
17 UNIVERSITY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
18 IMPLIED.  BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, PRINCETON
19 UNIVERSITY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF MERCHANT-
20 ABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE
21 OF THE LICENSED SOFTWARE, DATABASE OR DOCUMENTATION WILL NOT
23 OTHER RIGHTS.
24
25 The name of Princeton University or Princeton may not be used in
26 advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software
27 and/or database.  Title to copyright in this software, database and
28 any associated documentation shall at all times remain with
29 Princeton University and LICENSEE agrees to preserve same.


01320032 05 n 02 domestic_animal 0 domesticated_animal 0 007 @ 00015568 n 0000 ~ 01320304 n 0000 ~ 01320544 n 0000 ~ 01320872 n 0000 ~ 02086723 n 0000 ~ 02124460 n 0000 ~ 02125232 n 0000 | any of various animals that have been tamed and made fit for a human environment

02085998 05 n 02 canine 0 canid 0 011 @ 02077948 n 0000 #m 02085690 n 0000 + 02688440 a 0101 ~ 02086324 n 0000 ~ 02086723 n 0000 ~ 02116752 n 0000 ~ 02117748 n 0000 ~ 02117987 n 0000 ~ 02119787 n 0000 ~ 02120985 n 0000 %p 02442560 n 0000 | any of various fissiped mammals with nonretractile claws and typically long muzzles

02086723 05 n 03 dog 0 domestic_dog 0 Canis_familiaris 0 023 @ 02085998 n 0000 @ 01320032 n 0000 #m 02086515 n 0000 #m 08011383 n 0000 ~ 01325095 n 0000 ~ 02087384 n 0000 ~ 02087513 n 0000 ~ 02087924 n 0000 ~ 02088026 n 0000 ~ 02089774 n 0000 ~ 02106058 n 0000 ~ 02112993 n 0000 ~ 02113458 n 0000 ~ 02113610 n 0000 ~ 02113781 n 0000 ~ 02113929 n 0000 ~ 02114152 n 0000 ~ 02114278 n 0000 ~ 02115149 n 0000 ~ 02115478 n 0000 ~ 02115987 n 0000 ~ 02116630 n 0000 %p 02161498 n 0000 | a member of the genus Canis (probably descended from the common wolf) that has been domesticated by man since prehistoric times; occurs in many breeds; “the dog barked all night”

02106058 05 n 01 working_dog 0 016 @ 02086723 n 0000 ~ 02106493 n 0000 ~ 02107175 n 0000 ~ 02109506 n 0000 ~ 02110072 n 0000 ~ 02110741 n 0000 ~ 02110906 n 0000 ~ 02111074 n 0000 ~ 02111324 n 0000 ~ 02111699 n 0000 ~ 02111802 n 0000 ~ 02112043 n 0000 ~ 02112177 n 0000 ~ 02112339 n 0000 ~ 02112463 n 0000 ~ 02112613 n 0000 | any of several breeds of usually large powerful dogs bred to work as draft animals and guard and guide dogs

02112993 05 n 03 dalmatian 0 coach_dog 0 carriage_dog 0 002 @ 02086723 n 0000 ~ 02113184 n 0000 | a large breed having a smooth white coat with black or brown spots; originated in Dalmatia

02107175 05 n 03 shepherd_dog 0 sheepdog 0 sheep_dog 0 012 @ 02106058 n 0000 ~ 02107534 n 0000 ~ 02107903 n 0000 ~ 02108064 n 0000 ~ 02108157 n 0000 ~ 02108293 n 0000 ~ 02108507 n 0000 ~ 02108682 n 0000 ~ 02108818 n 0000 ~ 02109034 n 0000 ~ 02109202 n 0000 ~ 02109314 n 0000 | any of various usually long-haired breeds of dog reared to herd and guard sheep

02111324 05 n 02 bulldog 0 English_bulldog 0 003 @ 02106058 n 0000 + 01121448 v 0101 ~ 02111567 n 0000 | a sturdy thickset short-haired breed with a large head and strong undershot lower jaw; developed originally in England for bull baiting

02116752 05 n 01 wolf 0 007 @ 02085998 n 0000 #m 02086515 n 0000 ~ 01324999 n 0000 ~ 02117019 n 0000 ~ 02117200 n 0000 ~ 02117364 n 0000 ~ 02117507 n 0000 | any of various predatory carnivorous canine mammals of North America and Eurasia that usually hunt in packs

### Field description¶

While parsing, skip the copyright notice. Then, each name definition follows the following format:

synset_offset lex_filenum ss_type w_cnt word lex_id [word  lex_id...] p_cnt [ptr...] | gloss

• synset_offset: Number identifying the synset, for example 02112993. MUST be converted to a Python int

• lex_filenum: Two digit decimal integer corresponding to the lexicographer file name containing the synset, for example 03. MUST be converted to a Python int

• ss_type: One character code indicating the synset type, store it as a string.

• w_cnt: Two digit hexadecimal integer indicating the number of words in the synset, for example b3. MUST be converted to a Python int.

WARNING: w_cnt is expressed as hexadecimal!

To convert an hexadecimal number like b3 to a decimal int you will need to specify the base 16 like in int('b3',16) which produces the decimal integer 179.

• Afterwards, there will be w_cnt words, each represented by two fields (for example, dalmatian 0). You MUST store these fields into a Python list called words containing a dictionary for each word, having these fields:

• word: ASCII form of a word (example: dalmatian), with spaces replaced by underscore characters (_)

• lex_id: One digit hexadecimal integer (example: 0) that MUST be converted to a Python int

WARNING: lex_id is expressed as hexadecimal!

To convert an hexadecimal number like b3 to a decimal int you will need to specify the base 16 like in int('b3',16) which produces the decimal integer 179.

• p_cnt: Three digit decimal integer indicating the number of pointers (that is, relations like for example IS A) from this synset to other synsets. MUST be converted to a Python int

WARNING: differently from w_cnt, the value p_cnt is expressed as decimal!

• Afterwards, there will be p_cnt pointers, each represented by four fields pointer_symbol synset_offset pos source/target (for example, @ 02086723 n 0000). You MUST store these fields into a Python list called ptrs containing a dictionary for each pointer, having these fields:

• pointer_symbol: a symbol indicating the type of relation, for example @ (which represents IS A relation)

• synset_offset : the identifier of the target synset, for example 02086723. You MUST convert this to a Python int

• pos: just parse it as a string (we will not use it)

• source/target: just parse it as a string (we will not use it)

WARNING: DO NOT assume first pointer is an @ (IS A) !!

In the full database, the root synset entity can’t possibly have a parent synset:

0        1  2 3  4      5 6   7 8        9 10   11 12      13 14   15 16       17 18
00001740 03 n 01 entity 0 003 ~ 00001930 n 0000 ~ 00002137 n  0000 ~  04431553 n  0000 | that which is perceived or known or inferred to have its own distinct existence (living or nonliving)

• gloss: Each synset contains a gloss (that is, a description). A gloss is represented as a vertical bar (|), followed by a text string that continues until the end of the line. For example, a large breed having a smooth white coat with black or brown spots; originated in Dalmatia. Remove white spaces at the beginning/end.

### Parsing the db¶

Implement a function which parses noun database filename as a text file and RETURN a dictionary containing all the synset found. Each key will be a synset_offset mapping to a dictionary holding the fields of the corresponding synset.

FULL expected output: expected_dogs_db.py

Expected output EXCERPT (showing only two items):

>>> parse_db('dogs.noun')
{1320032: {'gloss': 'any of various animals that have been tamed and made fit '
'for a human environment',
'lex_filenum': 5,
'p_cnt': 7,
'ptrs': [{'pointer_symbol': '@',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 15568},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 1320304},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 1320544},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 1320872},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2086723},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2124460},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2125232}],
'ss_type': 'n',
'synset_offset': 1320032,
'w_cnt': 2,
'words': [{'lex_id': 0, 'word': 'domestic_animal'},
{'lex_id': 0, 'word': 'domesticated_animal'}]},
2085998: {'gloss': 'any of various fissiped mammals with nonretractile claws '
'and typically long muzzles',
'lex_filenum': 5,
'p_cnt': 11,
'ptrs': [{'pointer_symbol': '@',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2077948},
{'pointer_symbol': '#m',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2085690},
{'pointer_symbol': '+',
'pos': 'a',
'source_target': '0101',
'synset_offset': 2688440},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2086324},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2086723},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2116752},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2117748},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2117987},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2119787},
{'pointer_symbol': '~',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2120985},
{'pointer_symbol': '%p',
'pos': 'n',
'source_target': '0000',
'synset_offset': 2442560}],
'ss_type': 'n',
'synset_offset': 2085998,
'w_cnt': 2,
'words': [{'lex_id': 0, 'word': 'canine'},
{'lex_id': 0, 'word': 'canid'}]},

.
.
.

}

Show solution
[1]:


def parse_db(filename):
raise Exception('TODO IMPLEMENT ME !')

dogs_db = parse_db('dogs.noun')


[2]:

# EXECUTE FOR TESTING
from pprint import pformat; from expected_dogs_db import expected_dogs_db
for soff in expected_dogs_db.keys():
if soff not in dogs_db: print('\nERROR: MISSING synset', soff); break
for k in expected_dogs_db[soff]:
if k not in dogs_db[soff]:
print('\nERROR at synset', soff,'\n\n   MISSING key:', k); break
if expected_dogs_db[soff][k] != dogs_db[soff][k]:
print('\nERROR at synset', soff, 'key:',k)
print('  ACTUAL:\n', pformat(dogs_db[soff][k]))
print('  EXPECTED:\n', pformat(expected_dogs_db[soff][k]))
break
for soff in dogs_db:
if soff not in expected_dogs_db.keys():
print('\nERROR: found extra synset', soff, 'in dogs_db but not in expected_dogs_db!')
assert dogs_db == expected_dogs_db


Implement a function to_adj which takes the parsed db and RETURN a graph-like data structure in adjacency list format. Each node represents a synset - as label use the first word of the synset. A node is linked to another one if there is a IS A relation among the nodes, so use the @ symbol to filter the hypernyms.

IMPORTANT: not all linked synsets are present in the dogs excerpt.

HINT: If you couldn’t implement the parse_db function properly, use expected_dogs_db.py

Expected output:

{'bulldog': ['working_dog'],
'canine': [],
'dalmatian': ['dog'],
'dog': ['canine', 'domestic_animal'],
'domestic_animal': [],
'shepherd_dog': ['working_dog'],
'wolf': ['canine'],
'working_dog': ['dog']}

Show solution
[3]:



raise Exception('TODO IMPLEMENT ME !')

from pprint import pprint
pprint(dogs_graph)


### Check results¶

If parsing is right, you should get the following graph:

DO NOT implement any drawing function, this is just for checking your results

[4]:

from soft import draw_adj

)

Image saved to file:  expected-diagram.png


## 3. hist¶

You are given a dictionary mapping each relation symbol (i.e. @) to its description (i.e. Hypernym).

Implement a function to draw the histogram of relation frequencies found in the relation links of the entire Wordnet, which can be loaded from the file data.noun. If you previously implemented parse_db in a correct way, you should be able to load the whole db. If for any reasons you can’t, try at least to draw the histogram of frequencies found in expected_dogs_db.py

• sort the histogram from greatest to lowest frequency

• display the relation names nicely, adding newlines if necessary

• DO NOT count the relations containing the word 'domain' inside (upper/lowercase)

• DO NOT count the ‘’ relation

Expected output:

{'!': 2153,
'#m': 12287,
'#p': 9110,
'#s': 796,
'%m': 12287,
'%p': 9110,
'%s': 796,
'+': 37235,
'=': 638,
'@': 75915,
'@i': 8588,
'~': 75915,
'~i': 8588}


Show solution
[5]:



relation_names = {
'!':'Antonym',
'@':'Hypernym',
'@i':'Instance Hypernym',
'~':'Hyponym',
'~i':'Instance Hyponym',
'#m':'Member holonym',
'#s':'Substance holonym',
'#p':'Part holonym',
'%m':'Member meronym',
'%s':'Substance meronym',
'%p':'Part meronym',
'=':'Attribute',
'+':'Derivationally related form',
';c':'Domain of synset - TOPIC',           # DISCARD
'-c':'Member of this domain - TOPIC',      # DISCARD
';r':'Domain of synset - REGION',          # DISCARD
'-r':'Member of this domain - REGION',     # DISCARD
';u':'Domain of synset - USAGE',           # DISCARD
'-u':'Member of this domain - USAGE',      # DISCARD
'\\': 'Pertainym (pertains to noun)'       # DISCARD
}

def draw_hist(db):
raise Exception('TODO IMPLEMENT ME !')

wordnet = parse_db('data.noun')
draw_hist(wordnet)